Language Fundamental




v  Language Fundamental: To reinforce and enhance the students with comprehensive resource for grammar, mechanics, usage, and vocabulary practice, I will provide extra practice to accommodate students’ varied skill levels. Multiple choice review will help the students to prepare for assessment and standardized tests, while sentence editing will provide “real world” application of skills. The numerous and varied lessons for targeted language skills will help the students meet individual needs.





A noun names a person, place, or thing.

Person             Place             Thing
girl                     city                 chair
friend                 room             car

Circle the noun in each pair of words.
1. big cat
2. round basket
3. warm room
4. tiny kit tens
5. more pets
6. happy child

Underline the noun in each sentence.
7. A man is walking quickly.
8. The bag is heavy.
9. The street is long.
10. Here is the house.
11. A lit tle boy is excited.
12. A favorite uncle is visiting.

A noun names a person, place, or thing.

The word captain names a person. It is a noun.

The word lake names a place. It is a noun.

The word ship names a thing. It is a noun.


Underline the noun in each sentence. Then circle person, place, or thing

to tell what the noun names.

1. The store is very busy. person place thing

2. Many children are here. person place thing

3. Look at all the different shoes. person place thing

4. That woman can help. person place thing

5. Let’s buy the blue sneakers. person place thing

6. Now let’s go sit outside. person place thing

7. Here is a seat. person place thing

8. Please choose a snack to eat. person place thing


A singular noun names one.

A plural noun names more than one.

Add an s to most nouns to name more than one.


Singular                             Plural

Baker                             bakers

Pie                                    pies

Bird                                  birds


Write S if the underlined noun is singular.

Write P if the underlined noun is plural.

1. The pond is quiet.

2. Then the ducks start to quack.

3. The eggs have hatched.

4. Now the frogs are croaking.

5. A snake is nearby.

6. There are many rocks.

7. Worms are underneath.

8. One boy goes fishing.


Write two nouns that you know. Write S or P after each noun

to show singular or plural.



Some nouns end in a consonant let ter and y.

Change the y to i and add es to make the plural.


Singular                 Plural

sky                         skies

fairy                        fairies

Look at the noun in parentheses ( ).

Write the plural form of each noun in the sentence.

1. I love to eat red .


2. I like red , too.


3. The mother dog had .


4. Now we have three .


5. I will have two birthday .


6. We will see many .


7. I can find some on a map.


8. I can find some , too.


The plurals of some nouns have special spellings.


Singular                         Plural

foot                               feet

goose                             geese

mouse                             mice

tooth                                teeth

man                                 men

woman                            women

child                                children


Choose the correct word from the word box to complete each sentence.

child children tooth teeth man women

1. The in the class are smiling.

2. Two are special visitors today.

3. A is helping them, too.

4. They are giving a lesson on .

5. One in the class has something to tell.

6. A fell out last night!

Use each word in a sentence.

7. (mice)

8. (feet)


Some special nouns are spelled the same in both singular

and plural. Pay at tention to other words in the sentence

to decide if the special noun names one or more than one.


Singular                     Plural

one deer                    two deer

this sheep                  those sheep

a fish                         many fish


Read each sentence. Underline the special noun. Then circle singular or

plural to tell if it names one or more than one.

1. The farmer has many sheep. singular plural

2. I would like to pet a sheep. singular plural

3. All the sheep have soft wool. singular plural

4. I see a deer out in the field. singular plural

5. The farmer sees five deer. singular plural

6. Those deer are looking for food. singular plural

7. The farmer has a pond with lots of fish. singular plural

8. I see one fish watching me! singular plural


Add an apostrophe () and s to a singular noun to show belonging.


Noun                         Noun That Shows Belonging


Haruru                         Haruru’s                                 Haruru’s coat

but terf ly                 but terf ly’s                          but terf ly’s wings

bus                             bus’s                                      bus’s wheels


Add ’s to the underlined words to show belonging.

1. Guy t team is playing today.

2. The team players are excited.

3. The winner of today game gets a prize.

4. The coach son is the pitcher.

5. He throws the ball at the catcher mitt.

6. The pitcher aim was good.

7. The bat ter swing was bet ter.

8. Nobu catch is the best of all!


Follow these rules when plural nouns show belonging.

• When a plural noun ends in s, just add an apostrophe ().

girls                                        girls

babies                                    babies

dresses                                  dresses


• For special plural nouns, add ’s.

geese                                     geese’s

children                                 children’s

women                                  women’s


Complete each sentence with the belonging form of the word in parentheses ( ).

1. The leaves are green.


2. The yells are loud.


3. The shirts are white.


4. eggs are blue.


5. I know what the meals will be.


6. Worms are many favorite food!



Common and Proper Names


A common noun names any person, place, or thing.

It does not begin with a capital letter.


A proper noun names a specific person, place, or thing.

It begins with a capital let ter.


Common Noun                               Proper Noun

Teacher                                             Mrs. Chai

friend                                                 Clara

dog                                                     Buster

cat                                                      Fluffy


Underline the common nouns. Circle the proper nouns.

1. Yeju’s friends have pets.

2. Yo has a cat named Orange.

3. Orange looks like an orange with fur.

4. Duke is a black dog that belongs to Ryan.

5.Etienne has a hamster named Harry.

6. Duke the dog chased Orange the cat.

7. Orange chased Harry the hamster.

8. Marika, Camila, Yulie, Hiram, Eric, and Sam, all chased the animals!





Proper nouns can be special places.

They begin with a capital let ter.

A common noun does not begin with a capital let ter.


Common Noun                               Proper Noun

restaurant                                        Family Diner

country                                             United States

motel                                                 Sam’s Motel

river                                                   East River


Write C if the underlined word or words are a common noun. Write P if the

underlined word or words are a proper noun.

1. The students at tend Lincoln School.

2. The children are learning about their city.

3. They took a field trip to Our Town Museum.

4. They saw old pictures of stores on Main Street.

5. Main Street Hardware looks just the same today.

6. The Big West Mall is very different from those old stores.


Write two sentences about your town. Use proper nouns.

7. _____________________________________________________________


8. _____________________________________________________________



Review 2

Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer.

1. Which noun shows belonging?





2. Which sentence has a singular noun that shows belonging?

𝖠_The cars will race.

𝖑_The front tire is f lat.

𝖒_The car’s seats are white.

𝖣 The cars’ colors are blue and red.

3. Which sentence has a plural noun that shows belonging?

𝖠_Look for the mall’s lights.

𝖑_The parking lots are filled with cars.

𝖒_The front doors are closed.

𝖣_The stores’ signs are big.

4. Which sentence has a proper noun?

𝖠_Molly is my best friend.

𝖑_Those girls are fun.

𝖒_I love my friends.

𝖣_Friends are great!

5. In which sentence does the proper noun name a place?

𝖠_Mr. Hernandez is our new music teacher.

𝖑_He told us that he has a singing parrot named Pete.

𝖒_We bought toys for Pete at the pet store.

𝖣_Pete will visit Sunrise Elementary School soon.


Adjectives 1


An adjective describes a noun.

brown dog shiny hair

hot sun pink shoes

tall woman two houses

Circle the adjective that describes each underlined noun.

1. Look at the colorful rainbow.

2. The blue sky is full of f luffy clouds.

3. One cloud looks like a white elephant.

4. I see f loppy ears and a long trunk.

5. There are yellow f lowers in the wet grass.

6. A rainy day helps the plants grow.

Write adjectives to describe the nouns.

7. trees 11. shells

8. insects 12. birds

9. kit ten 13. candy

10. pillow 14. night


 Adjectives 2


Adjectives are words that describe nouns. Some adjectives

come before a noun.

A white bear sits in a chair.

Some adjectives come after is or are.

The bear is white.

Circle the adjective in each sentence. Underline the noun that each

adjective describes.

1. The monkey is funny.

2. The giraffes are tall.

3. The lion is asleep.

4. The hippos are huge.

5. The frogs are green.

6. The f lamingo is pink.

7. The zoo is fun to visit!

Fill in the blanks with a noun and an adjective that describes it.


 Adjectives 3


An adjective can describe how a noun looks, feels,

sounds, smells, or tastes.

Looks round red ball

Feels scratchy scarf

Sounds honking horn

Smells stinky skunk

Tastes sour apple

Choose an adjective from the word box to complete each sentence.

orange slick noisy delicious smoky cold

1. The geese are at the lake.

2. The fall leaves are on the trees.

3. I smell a fire.

4. The water is .

5. This fish feels .

6. It will be to eat.

Write two adjectives that describe the color and shape or size of a tree.

7. _____________________________________________________________

8. _____________________________________________________________


 Adjectives 4


An adjective can tell how many, how much, or what size.

How Many Five children are going to the party.

How Much There is more soup if you are hungry.

What Size The giant snake is in the window of the pet store.

Circle the adjective that completes each sentence.

1. The fun park is _____ miles from our house. nine bumpy

2. I find the rides for _____ children my size. good lit tle

3. My brother likes the rides for _____ kids. tall smart

4. There are _____ people in line for the roller coaster. many nervous

5. I see _____ friends from school. new three

6. There are _____ parents my mother knows. several tired

7. I am thirsty and want the _____ drink. slushy jumbo

8. Mom says it is too _____ and not good for me. sweet big

9. She says we have _____ minutes before we leave. ten quick

10. I think that is too _____, but she is in charge! sad few




Review 1

Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer.

1. How many adjectives are in this sentence?

The brown bunnies are pets.





2. Complete the sentence with the adjective that tells how a noun looks.

I like the _____ crackers.





3. Complete the sentence with the adjective that tells what size.

I picked up this _____ shell on the beach.



𝖒_pret ty


4. Complete the sentence with the adjective that tells how many or how much.

I need _____ cars to finish my collection.






Adjectives 5

Add er to an adjective to compare two

people, places, or things.

young + er = younger

My sister is younger than my brother.

tall + er = taller

That tree is taller than the other one.

Circle the adjectives that compare. Then underline the

people, places, or things being compared.

1. The gray cat is darker than the calico cat.

2. The roses smell sweeter than the tulips.

3. The f lower garden is pret tier than the vegetable garden.

4. Our yard is greener than Mr. Jensen’s yard.

5. This lit tle dog is busier than that big dog.

6. The lit tle dog’s bone is bigger than the big dog’s bone.

7. Today is hot ter than yesterday.

8. The lemonade tastes sweeter than the iced tea.



 Adjectives 6

Add er to an adjective to compare two

people, places, or things.

cold + er = colder

Canada is colder than Mexico.

Add est to an adjective to compare three or more

people, places, or things.

slow + est = slowest

The sloth is the slowest animal of all.

Circle the correct adjective to make the comparison in each sentence.

1. That star is the of all the stars. brighter brightest

2. The moon looks than it did last night. rounder roundest

3. This is the night all summer. warmer warmest

4. The insects are than on a cool night. noisier noisiest

5. I see four clouds, and that one is the . bigger biggest

6. I see two planes, and one is than the other. faster fastest

7. Sit ting inside makes me than being outside. sleepier sleepiest

Use the adjective happiest in a sentence of your own.

8. _____________________________________________________________




 Adjectives 7

Some adjectives do not use er or est to compare things.

They use dif ferent words.

A sandwich is a good lunch. Last week, we had a bad game.

Pizza is a bet ter lunch. Yesterday, we had a worse game.

Spaghet ti is the best lunch of all. Today, we played the worst game ever!

Fill in the blanks with good, bet ter, or best.

1. This year, I sing than I did last year.

2. Last year, my singing was for my age.

3. I will practice to sing the that I can.

Fill in the blanks with bad, worse, or worst.

4. I have had a terrible cold all week and feel the today.

5. My mother feels than I do.

6. I think my lit tle sister gave us all this cold.

Use the adjectives best and worst in two sentences of your own.

7. _____________________________________________________________

8. __________________________________________________________




Review 2

Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer.

1. Choose the correct rule that tells how to compare with adjectives.

𝖠 Use the er ending to compare two people, places, or things.

𝖑 Use the est ending to compare two people, places, or things.

𝖒_Use best and worst to compare two people, places, or things.

𝖣_Use good and bad to compare two people, places, or things.

2. Choose another rule that tells a correct way to compare with adjectives.

𝖠 Use the er ending to compare three or more people, places, or things.

𝖑 Use the est ending to compare three or more people, places, or things.

𝖒_Use bet ter and worse to compare three or more people, places, or things.

𝖣_Use good and bad to compare three or more people, places, or things.

3. Choose the correct adjective to complete the second sentence.

Here is a picture of our horses. My horse looks _____ of all.

𝖠 smart

𝖑 good



4. Choose the sentence that is correct.

𝖠 That was the baddest movie I have ever seen.

𝖑 Jamal thought it was the goodest movie of all.

𝖒_Kaylea thought it was the worse movie she has ever seen.

𝖣_Angela thought it was the worst movie ever.

5. How many adjectives are in this sentence?

We need faster runners and stronger hit ters.

𝖠 one

𝖑 two





 Adjectives 8

Proper adjectives are made from some proper nouns.

They begin with capital let ters.

I have never been to Mexico, but I like Mexican food.

Here are some other proper nouns and proper adjectives.

Proper Noun Proper Adjective

China Chinese

France French

England English

Read each sentence. Circle the proper adjective. Underline the

proper noun it comes from.

1. I can find Africa on a map and name some African countries.

2. There are Asian countries that are in Asia.

3. The American f lag f lies everywhere in the United States of America.

4. Does Swiss cheese come from Switzerland?

5. Does Irish stew come from Ireland?

6. Do Swedish meatballs come from Sweden?

7. I think Italian food must come from Italy.

8. I am sure that Japanese food comes from Japan.


 Adjectives 9

The words a and an are special adjectives that come

before nouns.

• Use a before words that begin with a consonant sound.

A man is talking.

• Use an before words that begin with a vowel sound.

An owl is hooting.

Write a or an in each blank.

1. Have you ever seen ocean?

2. Have you ever been to beach?

3. Have you ever f loated on big wave?

4. Have you ever been to island?

5. Have you ever seen iceberg?

6. Have you ever slid down snowy mountain?

7. Have you ever been to amazing place?

Finish the sentence to ask a question of your own. Use a or an. Be sure

to add a question mark.

8. Have you ever




 Adjectives 10

The word the is a special adjective that comes

before a noun.

The boat belongs to my uncle.

Underline the special adjective the in each sentence. Circle the noun

it describes.

1. The painting belongs to me.

2. I used the red and yellow paints.

3. How did I make the orange sun?

4. I dipped the brush in red paint and made a circle.

5. I added yellow paint to the circle.

6. I like the fun of mixing paints!

Write two sentences about something you like to do. Include the in

each sentence.

7. _____________________________________________________________


8. _____________________________________________________________





Review 3

Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer.

1. Which word is a proper adjective?

𝖠 America

𝖑 American

𝖒 United States

𝖣 Amanda

2. Which sentence contains a proper adjective and a proper noun?

𝖠 Aunt Mary is visiting Mexico this month.

𝖑 The German music had an oom-pa-pa sound.

𝖒 Swiss cheese is good on crackers.

𝖣 People in England speak the English language.

3. How many special adjectives are in this sentence?

Let’s go to an orchard for the day.

𝖠 none

𝖑 one

𝖒 two

𝖣 three

4. Choose the sentence that is correct.

𝖠 You need a coat to wear.

𝖑 A October day can be chilly.

𝖒 There is a extra coat in the closet.

𝖣 Be sure to find an scarf.

5. Choose the sentence that is correct.

𝖠 The ocean is an wonderful place.

𝖑 I can ride on an boat.

𝖒 A octopus would be fun to see!

𝖣 An eel swims in the reef.



Pronouns 1


A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun.

I you he she it they we

Jasmine likes to fish. Cody and John like to fish.

She likes to fish. They like to fish.

Noah and I like to fish. A fish is fun to catch.

We like to fish. It is fun to catch.

Underline all the pronouns in the sentences.

1. Paige and I are going swimming today.

2. She is a great swimmer.

3. We are taking swimming lessons together.

4. We meet other kids at the pool.

5. They are taking lessons from Mr. Apeno, too.

6. They say he is very strict.

7. I listen carefully when he explains the rules.

8. It is very important to be safe at the pool and to have fun!



 Pronouns 2


A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun.

I you he she it they we

Jason has a puppy. Molly and I want a puppy, too.

He has a puppy. We want a puppy, too.

When there are two sentences about the same person or

thing, you can use a pronoun to start the second sentence.

Kayley has a new kit ten. She has a puppy, too.

Rewrite the sentences. Use pronouns to take the place of the underlined nouns.

1. Seth is having a birthday.


2. Gabriella and I are looking for a present.


3. Gabriella has an idea.


4. Gabriella has a cat. The cat has what Gabriella and I can give.


5. Seth will like the present. Seth will love a kit ten!



 Pronouns 3


A singular pronoun takes the place of one person, place,

or thing.

I you he she it

Vanessa has a new soccer ball. Adrian wants to borrow the ball.

She has a new soccer ball. Adrian wants to borrow it.

You can be a singular pronoun when one person is being

spoken to.

Ryan, do you know who won the game?

Write the correct singular pronoun to replace each underlined noun.

1. Marissa is joining the soccer team.

is joining the soccer team.